How FICO Credit Scores Are Calculated
Since we live in an automated world, it's not surprising that your ability to repay your mortgage loan boils down to just one number.
This score is created by credit reporting agencies. They use the payment history of your various loans: credit cards, mortgages, car/boat loans etcetera.
Equifax, TransUnion, and Experian, the three major credit agencies, each have a proprietary formula for building a credit score. The original FICO was developed by Fair Isaac and Company.
While Experian still calls its score "FICO", TransUnion calls its score "Beacon" and Equifax uses "Empirica." While each of the models considers a range of data available in your credit report, the differences aren't huge; each agency uses the following in building a credit score:
- Your Credit History - How many years have you had credit?
- Late Payments - Do you have any payments later than 30 days?
- Balances on your Credit Cards - How many accounts? How much do you owe on your accounts?
- Credit Inquiries - How many times have you had your credit checked for a loan?
These factors are weighted slightly differently depending on which formula the agency uses. The results are added up and distilled into a single number. FICO scores can be as low as 300 and as high as 800. Higher is better. Most home buyers these days have a score above 620.
Your score greatly affects your interest rate
Credit scores are used for more than just determining whether or not you qualify for a mortgage. Lenders give lower interest rates to individuals with higher scores.
Improving your score
Is there any way to raise your FICO score? Despite what you hear from "credit repair" companies, the score is calculated from your lifelong credit history, so you can't turn it around right away. (Of course you can and should remove incorrect data on your credit report.)
Know your FICO
Before you can improve your credit score, you must know your score and make sure that the credit reports from each agency are correct. Fair Isaac, the corporation that invented the first FICO credit score, offers scores on its website: myFICO.com. It's inexpensive to get your FICO from all three reporting agencies, along with your credit report. Also available are information and online tools that help you understand how to improve your credit score.
You can get a free credit report once per year from all three credit reporting agencies when you visit AnnualCreditReport.com. You won't get a free credit score from AnnualCreditReport.com, but getting one is quick and very inexpensive.
Armed with this information, you will be a more informed consumer and you'll be better positioned to obtain the most favorable mortgage.
Curious about credit scores? Give us a call at 504-866-5626.